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Comprehensive Mosquito Management


      Rockwell Labs Ltd offers a full line of mosquito management products for PMPs. While large scale mosquito control efforts are typically undertaken by government mosquito control districts, PMPs have the opportunity to provide relief for their customers and revenue to their bottom line through barrier treatments and breeding prevention around structures.

      An effective mosquito management plan includes a range of tools and procedures. An IPM (Integrated Pest Management) approach is most effective and includes reduction of adult mosquitoes using adulticides, reduction of breeding sources and resting sites, prevention of egg laying and larval development using larvicides, and reducing the risk of human exposure through education and preventative measures. A mosquito control program should consider the target species, mosquito biology and behavior, and local and regional environmental conditions and regulations.

1. Identification & Behavior
     Mosquitoes belong to the order Diptera, the true flies.  There are over 180 different species of mosquitoes in the United States.  Each species may exhibit unique behaviors and breeding preferences, prefer specific habitats, and feeding on different organisms.

     Despite the many differences among species, they all share many common traits.  Mosquitoes develop through four life stages-egg, larva, pupa, and adult (complete metamorphosis).  Understanding how to target these life stages for species present in your geographic area can prove crucial to pest management efforts.  Typical mosquito life cycles are short, developing from egg to biting adult in 2 weeks.  However under varying environmental conditions development may take as little as 4 days to several months. 

ImageImage
      Adult mosquitoes feed on plant nectar. Adult female mosquitoes mate quickly after emerging and require a blood meal to produce eggs. Male mosquitoes do not take a blood meal.  While some species are non-specific feeders, many specialize on one specific group of organisms, such as birds, mammals or reptiles. After obtaining a blood meal, females search for preferred habitat to lay eggs on or near a water source.

Click here for the Quick Mosquito ID Reference Guide

Breeding
     Areas chosen for breeding sites and depositing eggs are species specific, but can be placed into three general groups:

  • Permanent water breeders lay eggs on the water surface individually or in egg masses or rafts on permanent water sources such as ponds and ditches (Culex, Anopheles). 
  • Floodwater mosquitoes generally  lay eggs out of water on moist surfaces in flood prone areas and marshes (Aedes, Psorophora).
  • Container, treehole, and temporary water source breeders including Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus.  These mosquitoes will lay eggs in manmade items, temporary ponds/puddles, and any area where water may accumulate for short periods of time (10-14 days). Many species use available habitat within their geographic area despite their primary preferences.
      All mosquito larvae live in water. Different species of mosquitoes prefer different types of standing water to complete reproduction. Natural predators, water conditions and the lack of microorganisms and organic matter that larvae feed on, limit mosquito breeding in lakes, streams, rivers and other sources of fresh moving water.  The most common objects used as breeding sites in populated areas include: buckets, toys, plastic bags, tarps, abandoned swimming pools, potted plant pots and trays, birdbaths, boats, pet food containers, tires, clogged gutters, and even items as small as bottle caps and plastic spoons.   In addition to man-made objects more natural conditions may provide suitable egg laying  sites such as, tree holes and branch points, clogged ditches, the bases of plants where water may collect, poorly graded land, temporary pools or puddles, leaf piles, slow flowing creeks with large stagnant pools, swamps, rock pools, marshes, etc. Image

Contributing Conditions
      A major contributing factor to the success of a control program is to identify the staging and resting areas, as well as the sources of mosquito populations that may be present in the area. Mosquitoes search for staging and resting areas such as;  dark humid places with little air movement under decks, deep inside bushes and shrubs, and physical features of the home or areas that remain dark  or shaded throughout the day, basement window wells, overhanging trees, rock gardens, water features, etc. Some species of mosquitoes are good fliers and may cover large distances in search of suitable habitat.  However many species stay within a small area surrounding a water source.

     The following steps minimize mosquito breeding opportunities around the structure:

  • Reduce standing water to eliminate breeding sites.
  • Determine if drainage is adequate on the property.
  • Reduce dark, humid resting and staging areas.
  • Increase light penetration: Thin out bushes and shrubs, increase spacing of deck beams, etc.
  • Reduce watering or irrigation during peak seasonal activity. Direct spray nozzles away from any staging areas or areas where water tends to pool.
  • Use fans or take advantage of wind to dilute attractants and reduce mosquitoes flying into the area.

Pesticide Applications
      In addition to non-chemical strategies to reduce breeding, staging and resting areas, insecticides can be used to kill existing adult populations and control larval development.

KILLING ADULT MOSQUITOES
     Mosquitoes are attracted to carbon dioxide, body heat, lactic acid, and other scents on the body.  Mosquitoes may be drawn to certain areas or structures due to these attractants, habitat preferences or breeding sites, but the source of the population may be located some distance away.

USING LAMBDASTAR ULTRACAP AGAINST MOSQUITOES

image LambdaStar UltraCap image

      The innovative capsule suspension formulation protects the active ingredient Lambda-cyhalothrin from conditions that break down most pyrethroid insecticides; heat, UV light and rain leading to long term residual control.

     Thorough coverage is a must. Apply LambdaStar UltraCap as a barrier treatment using a backpack mist blower or other forced air misting device to all dense vegetation, bushes, landscaping and other foliage on the property.  Backpack and handheld misters improve results by thoroughly covering both sides of leaves, grasses, or branches, while reaching deep into plant canopies where mosquitoes rest.

     Mosquito resting areas on siding, under decks, window wells, basement entrances and other areas on accessible surfaces may also be treated using a coarse spray backpack sprayer with a fine fan pattern.  Misting tips are available for backpack sprayer nozzles, which will increase efficacy of treatment to foliage, but they do not produce the velocity necessary to reach deep within plants.  To increase results when using this method place the sprayer nozzle deep into the plant canopy to apply pesticide.

     Treatments should be made during the peak season of activity as needed. When applying insecticides to bushes and shrubs, avoid spraying any flowers and blooms in the area to reduce the impact on pollinating insects.  Mosquitoes are generally found deep inside the plant.

Recommended Rates: Use higher rate for initial service and lower rate for follow-up services.


LambdaStar UltraCap

Usage Rate

% Active

Equipment 

Service Interval

Initial Treatments and Severe Populations

0.8 oz per gallon per 1000 sq ft
**0.8 oz in sufficient water to cover 1000 sq ft

0.06%

Compressed air, Backpack or Handheld  mist blowers
**Power sprayers

Up to 60 days

Standard Treatments, Follow-up Treatments, Light infestations

0.4 oz per gallon per 1000 sq ft
**0.4 oz in sufficient water to cover 1000 sq ft

0.03%

Compressed air, Backpack or Handheld  mist blowers
**Power sprayers

Up to 30 days

USING ECOVIA RESEARCH-BASED BOTANICALS AS A COMPLETE EPA MINIMUM RISK GREEN SOLUTION PROGRAM TO KILL AND REPEL MOSQUITOES

Increase Your Success With EcoVia Botanicals
      Unlike synthetic pesticides which exhibit repellency only when insects touch a treated surface (known as excitorepellency) botanical pesticides exhibit true repellency due to their volatile aromatic components. Each EcoVia product allows maximum versatility for applications without pyrethroid or neonicotinoid use restrictions, as well as providing quick knockdown and residual control through repellency.

imageFIFRA 25(b) Exempt Insecticides

EcoVia WD iamge       Apply EcoVia EC as a barrier treatment using a backpack mist blower, compressed air sprayer or power sprayer at a rate of 1.0-4.0 oz per gallon per 1000 sq ft to all vegetation, landscaping and other mosquito resting surfaces as noted in the previous section. coVia EC may also be fogged over bodies of water such as ponds or lakes. When diluted, EcoVia EC may be applied near or over water sources and other environmentally sensitive areas where mosquitoes reside.  See product label for details.
EcoVia WD iamge

      Apply EcoVia G Granular Insecticide at a rate of 1-2 lbs per 1000 sq ft to provide repellent protection against mosquitoes.  EcoVia granules should be applied under bushes and heavy vegetation, throughout landscaping, on the boundary between wooded areas and turf, under decks and other areas where mosquitoes may reside. Note the wind direction and apply such that vapors travel in the intended direction.

EcoVia WD iamge EcoVia WD is a versatile wettable dust formulation that can be applied as a dust in areas such as mulch beds and under low/ground level decks where liquid treatments may be difficult, and in a liquid suspension in other areas.  The formulation of EcoVia WD provides a long lasting repellency, as well as larvicidal action in standing water.  Apply EcoVia WD at a rate of 1/2 to 2 cups per gallon 1000 sq ft depending on conditions, structures treated, and mosquito pressure.

     EcoVia Product Tips:  EcoVia products can be reapplied as necessary.  If oil sensitive plants are in the vicinity, apply EcoVia G granules on the soil surface, instead of a liquid formulation.  EcoVia WD and EcoVia G are excellent products for areas in landscaping that tend to pool or become supersaturated after rainfall.  To further reduce potential pollinator interactions, apply liquid treatments when pollinators are not present, or apply EcoVia G in areas where flowering plants are present.

image

Recommended Rates: Use higher rates for heavy mosquito pressure and lower rates for lower pressure.

 

Usage Rate

% Active

Equipment 

Service Interval

EcoVia EC

1-4 oz per gallon **or in sufficient water to cover  1000 sq ft

0.3-1.2%

Compressed air, Backpack or Handheld  mist blowers
**Power sprayers

Up to 21 days

EcoVia G

1-2 lbs
per 1000 sq ft

7.8%

Hand spreader or other granule spreading device

Up to 30 days

EcoVia WD

0.5-2.0 cups per gal **or in sufficient water to cover  1000 sq ft

0.133-0.531%

Compressed air sprayers
**Power sprayers

Up to 30 days

MAXIMIZE RESULTS BY COMBINING LAMBDASTAR ULTRACAP WITH ECOVIA PRODUCTS

      The most effective way to eliminate and repel mosquitoes is to use a combination of tactics and products.  Provide your clients with a 1-2 punch by combining EcoVia EC at 1 oz per gallon with your LambdaStar UltraCap treatment*. This combination will provide a rapid knockdown due to the contact kill of EcoVia EC and repellency due to the volatile botanical oils. Also, field evidence suggests that tank-mixing EcoVia EC at 1 oz per gallon to pyrethroid treatments extends the residual activity compared to either product used alone. Addition of EcoVia G and EcoVia WD to the program in areas as described above will also enhance results.
* Remember, when mixing these two products, always follow the more restrictive LambdaStar UltraCap label.

iamgeLambdaStar UltraCap

AFTER THE INITIAL SERVICE

   After you have reduced contributing conditions and performed an initial pesticide application, you may choose to reduce the amount of active ingredient on follow-up services depending on the level of mosquito pressure. Reduce the application rate of LamdaStar UltraCap to 0.4 oz per gallon.  Another option is to provide treatment with a second active ingredient on subsequent visits.  Apply FenvaStar EcoCap, micro-encapsulated esfenvalerate, at 1 oz per gallon per 1000 sq ft as a standalone treatment or tank mixed with EcoVia EC at 1 oz per gallon.

Image FenvaStar EcoCap

Other Control Strategies
LARVACIDES
     In some circumstance it may be necessary to control larval and pupal development in areas with extremely high mosquito pressure or areas with high moisture, standing water, or frequent rain. Larvacide options include:

  • Insect Growth Regulators (IGR) - IGRs interfere with insect development resulting in larval and pupal mortality by preventing adults from emerging. IGRs can be tank mixed with pesticides to enhance control efforts.
  • Biologicals - Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis (Bti) and B. sphaericus (Bs) are bacterial larvicides (acting as ingestion poisons) that are fairly specific to mosquito, black fly and fungus gnat larvae.  Biologicals are available as liquids, dunks, and granules.
  • Surface Films - Highly refined petroleum based products are used to coat the surface of standing water and suffocate larval and pupal stages of mosquitoes.
  • EcoVia WD – EcoVia WD has larvicidal activity, and can be used as a spray or dust in areas of standing water or chronic dampness as noted in the EcoVia section above, or applied to small bodies of water at 1 tsp per 5 gallons of water. Do not apply to water which supports fish or other desirable aquatic life, or to areas that directly runoff into permanent surface waters.
  • EcoVia IB Insect Bloks – EcoVia IB blocks have shown field evidence of larvicidal action when applied to small areas of standing water such as in basements prone to flooding. The blocks are on a soap carrier, so they may not be ideal for ornamental water.

MOSQUITO MISTING SYSTEMS

     Misting systems are becoming more popular for homeowners as well as PMPs. These systems can be used to dispense EcoVia EC in specified concentrations at specific time intervals to kill mosquitoes and greatly increase mosquito repellency

     There is concern over misuse or over application of pesticides for mosquito control that may lead to insecticide resistance.  When misting systems are in use it is important to continue IPM measures and use the system only when mosquito populations are active. It is important to practice pesticide rotation and always read product labels and use precise measurement to apply the correct amount of product to reduce the chances of insecticide resistance.  Botanical pesticides such as EcoVia EC contain a complex mixture of different plant compounds, reducing the chances of developing insecticide resistance.

PARTIES & EVENTS, OPEN AIR MOSQUITO CONTROL

     To quickly control mosquitoes, the EcoVia product line is your solution. After implementing non-chemical measures, apply EcoVia EC to the perimeter of the area including all potential harborage areas with a backpack mister or coarse spray backpack sprayer at 1-2 oz per gallon.  Apply EcoVia G granules to the grounds of the event at a rate of 1-2 lb per 1000 sq ft.  In addition, prior to the event EcoVia WD may be applied as a dust or liquid to any areas of high moisture that do not run off into permanent water surface waters that may harbor larvae of pupa. For best results make applications 1-2 days prior to the event.

PMP Checklist

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MOSQUITO MANAGEMENT TIPS FOR PMPs

Determine species

Review species biology, behavior and habitat to choose appropriate application.

Notifications-Under some circumstances it may be necessary to provide prior notification before performing any broad scale mosquito management.  Check local laws and regulations in your area prior to treatment.

Ask customer questions about gutters, water flow, standing water.

Ask customer about their daily outdoor activities, such as gardening, sitting on a deck, playing in the yard etc.

Perform inspection noting contributing conditions.

Review contributing conditions and repairs with customer.

Perform any possible actions to reduce contributing conditions.

Perform applications using appropriate insecticides and equipment.

Provide owner with follow up information, what can be expected, when to contact for retreatment and any other discoveries or deficiencies.

Follow up in one week to remind the owner of any contributing conditions that may lessen control results.

 

HOMEOWNER TIPS

Address contributing conditions to the extent possible.

Use repellents.

Dress to cover as much exposed skin as possible when outdoors for extended periods.

Reduce attractiveness by not using fruity or flowery soaps and scents.

Minimize outdoor activity during peak periods or use screened areas.

Use window screens.

Quick Refrence Guide

Scientific Name: Aedes aegypti
Common Name: Yellow Fever Mosquito
Description: Small to medium-sized mosquito, dark brown to black with white scales on the dorsal (top) surface of the thorax that form the shape of a violin and banded legs
Breeding Sites/Life Cycle:  Container, treehole, and temporary water source breeders
Eggs: 100-150 deposited individually and distributed in many areas
Biting Behavior Peak Activity: Primarily during the day, most active at dusk and dawn, but may bite at night in well lit areas, and indoors
Flight Range: Less than 0.5 miles

Scientific Name: Aedes albopictus
Common Name: Asian Tiger Mosquito
Description: Medium sized, dark brown to black mosquito with a white dorsal stripe down the middle and banded legs
Breeding Sites/Life Cycle: Container, treehole, and temporary water source breeders
Eggs: 40-150 deposited individually and distributed in many areas
Biting Behavior Peak Activity: Aggressive daytime biter, most active at dusk and dawn
Flight Range: Less than 0.5 miles

Scientific Name: Aedes sollicitans
Common Name: Eastern Salt Marsh Mosquito
Description:  Medium to large, dark brown mosquito with yellow to white accents on its abdomen, thorax and legs
Breeding Sites/Life Cycle: Coastal areas- depressions within salt marshes which dry out between periods of very high tide, eggs hatch after the next tide or heavy rains flood the area
Eggs: up to 200 deposited individually in flood prone areas
Biting Behavior Peak Activity: Vicious biters that attack in swarms, most active at dusk and dawn but is an opportunistic feeder
Flight Range: More than 20 miles

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Scientific Name: Aedes vexans
Common Name: Inland Flood Water Mosquito
Description:  Medium sized , brown mosquito with narrow rings of white scales on the hind tarsi, V-shaped notch is present in the middle of each band of white scales on the upper surface of the abdomen
Breeding Sites/Life Cycle: Flooded fields, ditches, water containment ponds, lake and river flood plains, shrub swamps
Eggs: Up to 200 eggs deposited individually in flood prone areas 
Biting Behavior Peak activity: Most active at dusk and dawn but is an opportunistic feeder
Flight Range: 5-10 miles

Scientific Name: Culex quinquefasciatus & Culex pipiens
Common Name: Southern & Northern House Mosquito
Description:  Medium sized brown mosquito-proboscis, thorax, wings, and tarsi darker than the rest of the body, abdomen has pale, narrow, rounded bands on the basal side
Breeding Sites/Life Cycle:  Both prefer polluted permanent water high in organic matter, but waste water areas, containers, and temporary sources are sufficient  
Eggs: 100-350 laid in a raft
Biting Behavior Peak Activity: Urban domestic pest, indoor and outdoor biting throughout day and night feed on birds and mammals
Flight Range: Less than 1 mile

Scientific Name: Culex tarsalis
Common Name: Western Encephalitis Mosquito
Description: Medium sized black mosquito with white band on its proboscis, as well as white bands on its tarsal joints, white longitudinal stripes extending along the middle and hind legs, and dark chevron patterns along the underside of its abdomen
Breeding Sites/Life Cycle: Similar to other Culex Species
Eggs: 100-350 laid in a raft
Biting Behavior Peak Activity: Most active after sunset, feeds on birds and mammals
Flight Range: 2-10 miles

Scientific Name: Psorophora columbiae
Common Name: Dark rice field mosquito
Description: Dark mosquito with white or yellowish markings, the tarsi and proboscis are dark brown and banded with white scales               
Breeding Sites/Life Cycle: Flood water, rice fields
Eggs: up to 250 deposited individually in areas prone to flood
Biting Behavior Peak Activity: Biting throughout day but more active at dusk and dawn, prefers to feed on livestock
Flight Range: 6-8 miles

Scientific Name: Anopheles quadrimaculatus
Common Name: Common Malaria Mosquito
Description: Light brown mosquito with a black abdomen with yellowish hairs, scales on its wings form four distinct dark spots
Breeding Sites/Life Cycle: ponds, swamps, bayous, slow-moving canals, and streams, prefers clean water and areas with plants
Eggs: up to 250 deposited individually on water
Biting Behavior Peak Activity: Biting throughout the night but more active at dusk and dawn, particularly sensitive to carbon dioxide, often bites humans on their heads
Flight Range: Generally 1 mile or less

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EcoVia, Green Zone, Unfair Advantage and Creating the Future of Pest Control are trademarks of Rockwell Labs Ltd. FenvaStar, LambdaStar, EcoCap and UltraCap are trademarks of LG Life Sciences. ©2016 Rockwell Labs Ltd. All rights reserved.